New environmental rules on marine fuels, which are now in force, have been devised to substantially reduce air pollution and its impacts on human health. Air pollutants from maritime shipping are transported over long distances and as a result contribute increasingly to the air quality problems in many European cities. Without any action, sulphur emissions from shipping in EU sea areas would exceed those from all land-based sources by 2020. The revised legislation will put an end to this trend reducing not only sulphur emissions but more importantly particulate matter, marking a clear step forward in protection of people’s health and the environment.
The Directive, which is now in force, is guided by standards developed at the International Maritime Organisation (IMO). It progressively reduces the maximum sulphur content of marine fuels from the current 3.5% to 0.5% by January 2020. In some very fragile ecosystems such as the Baltic Sea and the North Sea including the English Channel, the maximum sulphur content will be reduced to 0.1%, already in 2015.
As an alternative to low sulphur fuels, ships can opt for equivalent compliance methods such as exhaust gas cleaning systems or LNG-powered ships. Current EU transport funding instruments, such as TEN-T and Marco Polo Programmes, as well as the European Investment Bank (EIB) give financial support to green maritime-based projects. Furthermore, the Commission has launched activities that encourage the use of marine LNG as ship fuel. It will also continue to implement medium- and long-term measures to promote green ship technology, alternative fuels and the development of green transport infrastructure in the context of the Sustainable Waterborne Transport Toolbox, jointly with industry and Member States.
This Directive is the latest element of the EU policy framework on air pollution which has been developed over the last 30 years. The European Commission is currently carrying out a comprehensive review of the policy framework with a view to updating it in 2013.
By 17 April 2014 at the latest, Member States will have to amend their existing legislation on the quality of marine fuels to align it with the new Directive. The Directive provides legal certainty for the required investments by ship owners, port operators and refineries.
From 2015 onwards, Member States are asked to ensure that ships use fuels with a sulphur content of not more than 0.10% in the Baltic Sea and the North Sea including theEnglish Channel. Equivalent compliance methods, such as exhaust cleaning systems, are accepted.
From 2020 onwards, ships operating on all other European Sea areas will have to use fuels with sulphur content below 0.50%.